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tv   Balfour Seeds Of Discord  Al Jazeera  May 9, 2018 9:00am-10:02am +03

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peter will be in doha with the top stories from al-jazeera the u.s. president on the trump says america is withdrawing from the twenty fifteen iran nuclear deal mr trump said the agreement is quote defective to its core adding impose the highest level of sanctions against tehran kimberly how kit from the white house now. after much anticipation u.s. president donald trump made good on a signature campaign promise solidifying his america first agenda i am announcing today that the united states will withdraw from the iran nuclear deal this was a horrible one sided deal that should have never ever been made. the u.s. negotiated the agreement with iran in twenty fifteen along with the united kingdom france germany china and russia to limit iran's nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief with the announcement the united states now brea imposes tough
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economic sanctions on iran's oil and banking sectors that had been lifted arguing iran did not live up to its end of the agreement we have definitive proof that this arabian promise was a lie. even though u.s. intelligence the united nations and european allies maintain iran has been compliant under the agreement trump cited a recent israeli report that iran had not been truthful about its activities before entering into the deal trouble also argues the agreement should have dealt with iran's military pursuits in the region and its ballistic missile program. capitol hill the top senate democrat disagrees and to me the right thing to do would have been to try and come up with our allies with an agreement on those issues and let the nuclear part of this continue as is because it's not being violated in any way
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trumps predecessor barack obama the man who oversaw the deal called trump's decision a serious mistake in a statement obama said without the agreement the united states could eventually be left with a losing choice between a nuclear armed iran or another war in the middle east. deede former democratic presidential candidate bernie sanders believes the united states is already on that path the road to the war in iraq did not simply begin in two thousand and three it was laid down brick by brick over a number of years ironically as the president tore up the nuclear deal with iran secretary of state mike pompei it was on his way to north korea laying the groundwork for a nuclear deal with p.r. nyang president indicated the united states is willing to negotiate a new deal with iran but he says his decision also signals the united states will no longer make were trying calls empty threats can really help at al-jazeera at the
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white house by house and rouhani was quick to respond and said his country has fulfilled all of its commitments to the deal. they have done nothing except put empty signatures on pieces of paper without doing anything about it the iranian mission on the other hand has agreed to everything and accomplished all its responsibilities we had some duties based on that agreement and we have delivered all of them but today we can see which is the country that doesn't respect international agreements we have done nothing wrong is not acceptable that the us is pulling out of the signatories to the dealings that in the e.u. and russia have expressed regret over the move by donald trump america's european allies a pledge to uphold the deal but the from decision has been supported by israel the u.a.e. and saudi arabia donald trump's chief diplomat mike pompei o has arrived in north korea to prepare for the summit with kim jong il both washington and pyongyang have
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agreed on a date and a location for the meeting but no further details have been released voting is underway in malaysia and an election marred by scandal and fierce competition the prime minister najib razak cast his ballot in the city of peak can it's expected to be a close race between him and the opposition leader dr mahathir mohamad those are your headlines so far the news continues here on al-jazeera after powerful seeds of discord i will see you very soon.
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plath. was i. was there was. was. was. was. absolutely. the voice there david ben-gurion declaring the establishment of the
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state of israel in maine one nine hundred forty eight. the balfour declaration was a letter sent by british foreign secretary arthur balfour to a member of the british house of lords child on the second of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen. this letter sent to a leading figure in the british jewish community one hundred years ago had repercussions which even its authors cannot have imagined. whatever its real intentions it went on to have a profound impact on the middle east and its people. and its effects still resonates across the region today.
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in one nine hundred fourteen these soldiers were fighting on the battlefields of europe in the first world war the allies britain france and russia fought the central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottoman empire for four years but the land and sea war was not the only battleground. muscle was also being flexed behind closed doors as allies conspired how to redraw mouth's to their own advantage when the conflict eventually ceased. sir mark sykes for the british and french. for the french plotted how to divide the arab lands of the ottoman empire assuming it would finally fall. the
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agreement clancy quickly to divide it into french and british spheres of influence france taking most of the levant southern anatolia and the area while the british extended their control over the southern levant expanding eastwards to baghdad. and all the nand between there. and the french territory. historic palestine then still part of the ottoman empire was a bone of contention and would be put under international administration. by check all day but to. do. that falls. in. the ice. you cannot just trace. the men
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i don't. order. that down. for you. which is that all of them while with your. the half of art can be or whatever can leave you cannot garber we've got archer i think the british felt that there had not been enough government involvement in concluding the states because agreement with the french and the process they had not really protected their interests well enough for a post world war era in which the british empire would continue to seek to be a dominant force in european affairs and so really officials across whitehall including mark sykes himself felt it was a bad deal. have ilja going to act up if you look at it in the future not to have
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excel you need you on every night or does that mean and you who would be of my own . data for as the one your home your new shoot from the scene walk around before the scene where an article in the have been men ask who will levy. and i mean the clock i mean i look at that before and it's a huge significance that when they're making these discussions jews and so on is not discussed jews were not to feature in the new cuts at the middle east which was to be based on the idea of the arab nation. zionism was the movement supporting the reestablishment of a jewish homeland in the area defined as the historic land of israel. the movement was active in early twentieth century london especially because of the persecution of jews in russia and eastern europe. theodore hurt so had founded
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the zionist movement in the late one nine hundred century but jewish people in western europe had not washed to support it because they were integrating quite successfully into society zionists believed that all jews should someday return to that country one of the problems was that palestine belong to the ottoman empire and the ottoman empire was not clear that it wanted massive jewish immigration into palestine and the british government offered to let jews move unimpeded in great numbers into uganda if they wished. but in any event it really didn't happen and it didn't happen because a majority of scientists felt that hurtful was selling them out and that the only place for jews to move back to work at least conscious zionist jews to move back to was palestine in this i think britain began to look at the zionist movement as
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a possible carton or in justifying a reed to go she a sions of their agreement with the french you see for britain simply to claim territory against what they'd already concluded in the green that with france could create diplomatic problems for the the british. if they were to make a claim to palestine not out of self-interest but in order to advance a great historic ideal of the restoration of the jewish people to the legal homeland that this could justify an adjustment of the terms of the sites because. in a way that the french would accept the british wanted somehow and more and more increasingly they felt that the jews held the key to winning the war. and so they had to figure out how to bribe the jews to support them. sir mark sykes had succeeded in drawing the line he wanted from a curry in the west to care cook in the east but for some in government this was
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not enough. the british were using the jewish national movement to secure palestine for themselves is this is what highlights ben is really going to find to open ears of ten downing street in the foreign office in the colonial office and it's paving the way towards that critical decision in november of one nine hundred seventeen and so i think you can direct you can draw a direct connection between britain's sudden ignored of and of zionism is an idea at ideal. and what they were dissatisfied with in the term of the psychs because. i am fights was a chemistry lecturer in manchester who had become a prominent member of the british dynasty movement he was politically well connected and rubbed shoulders with senior figures in government so high in vitamin
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was russian by birth he was a chemist. and then he joined the zionist movement. he climbed in the zionist movement he moved to grow. britain before the war well before the war maybe ten years before the war began he was not before the war very well known in the english zionist movement he was pretty well known in the world zionist federation but he was by no means the most visible zionist when world war one began in great britain. vitamine later wrote in his memoirs about having been introduced to a british government minister herbert samuel. samuel was jewish but fights man was apparently concerned that he might be anti zionist. however herbert samuel turned out to be extremely receptive to vice men and went on to
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write an official memo in one nine hundred fifteen setting out a number of different possibilities for palestine and the jewish people. and i was here. so. health minister. who work on mandela through the number. of us who were caught up with the care and philosophy in. the last can have the alamy. who were a one year who would be. on america's most. brittany kept up with africa. sure but there's still a philosophy in badminton tell how to help him a lot and then let him a lot and hope fear only a hoodie year old see that wish him a very funny year for last year. but then he for me had the lawyer who the
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commonwealth yannick am but he didn't find willing ears in whitehall or the colonial office for schemes that involved the establishment of a jewish state in palestine britain was really concerned with two things by the time that the first world war had broken out they wanted to with the war first and foremost this was an imperative for the survival of britain and its empire and secondly they wanted to ensure that coming out of the war victorious that their empire would benefit from the victory so at this stage high in vitamin and herbert samuels ideas about the rights of the jews to resettle in palestine did not find much sympathy in the corridors of power in london. disappointed fights men wrote to a friend asking whether there wasn't at least a discussion to be had about what he called the chance for the jewish people. i
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realize of course he went on we cannot claim anything we are much too atomized for it. what did he did do however was to throw together a vitamin the russian jewish immigrants searching for a homeland and refuge from persecution with her brood samuel and lourdes rothschild for members of the british jewish elite established in society and part of the political and capitalist class. zionism for the most part of course all of the community was actually in the minority but certainly most of all within the jewish elite because it threatened the notion of them as one hundred percent committed members of british society and this was complete anathema for somebody like ed remount you could become secretary of state for india
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for him zionism is his worst nightmare the idea that jews are not satisfied simply with being citizens of britain or other countries around the world they're always longing to go back to the land of israel for him he wanted to demonstrate that the jews of britain were first and foremost british it's important to remember that for people like rothschild design isn't actually been a threat you see the elite in british jewellery had fought for generations to gain acceptance in british society it was only with the arrival of disraeli and that i can century that jews entered parliament and could rise to become prime minister and for people of. high finance or banking interests the real elite of the jewish community in britain. their struggle to demonstrate their place in british society then zionism with its claims that jews were
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a people apart and should be a nationalist movement in their own right or another with barely a amberley army. and even a corrupt britain body how to get. hold. of but i would be when i. meant go through it i wouldn't actually be you know the feel but i would be everyman german general call up here and i do have to shear. and must lean a bit of time even for my honey brand of beer and sammy of bosh who will of us out the head if my mr you know how to say you you well it's an x. vitamin vin show him much of the love in your mind doesn't need a mental ability. keep the interest ability to your. vitamin. the fim. it's
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vitamin that makes the difference and i think he was probably unique in his ability to persuade the leading british figures that the jews were in fact a vast sub to raney and influence which they were not. that all jews were zionists which was far from the truth and that therefore the big key to winning jewish support was to offer them palestine vitamin talked up the degree to which the jewish community supported zionism in order to get his message across to the government. but for the british it seemed to be about self interest about winning the war recognizing zionism would be close to lean to gaining global juice the poor it put the objective on which should start its future resting so the british motives for supporting zionism will be we can boil it down to two elements of
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british self interest at that time not an emotional interest inside ism or a love of jews and the jewish plight and the desire for a return of the jews to the holy land no for very specific self interests matters of policy they were first of all all of the british government agreed that they wanted to mobilize behind britain and the allies this idea of jewish power in the world. they were like all of the different policy elites in the war believe this in the notion that jews were tremendous influence in the corridors of power around the globe if the british government appeared to support zionism they would win over world jewry to their side and all that entailed the british were convinced that zionism was really at the center of the jewish holocaust. in may nine
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hundred sixteen sir mark sykes had agreed to his to quit deal with the french psychs because you would form the basis of the future carve up of the old ottoman empire. so he immediately turned his attention to palestine still part of the ottoman empire and how to use the finest ambitions to outmaneuver the french. formal contact between the british government and the zionist followed he immediately phoned herbert samuel and told him about the plan and herbert samuel then phoned him vitamin and vitamin brought with him in a home sokolow this meeting took place on the eleventh of april nine hundred sixteen it took place at moses castors house in maida vale. and gaster wrote in his diary afterwards how proud he was that this meeting which he thought
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was the most important meeting that had ever taken place in the history of zionism had taken place at his house. mark sykes the i need advice on how to get our what she doesn't know my gust of leno with a little must sent the jelly hoodie bust but then. rise one who only in the north who are in the fight and will do the most discussed it very quickly understands that sykes is looking to gain support from suppose it jewish power in the world and gets to works with this idea and manipulates this to consolidate sykes's interest in science and we see actually the british government becomes very close already nazi sixteen of issuing a public declaration in support for zionism there in the end this doesn't happen that year the planned psychs got herbert samuels to pass on to the zionist leaders involved joint british french administration of palestine and
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a charter guaranteeing british support for sign ism. but his idea was rejected. they didn't want an anglo-french condominium in palestine they wanted the british to protect them not the french and that's because they thought that the french always sort of converted their colonized people into becoming frenchmen and what they wanted was to remain as self conscious jews and they thought that the british would leave them alone and let them do that and mushy hell to live in begun by big circle of we were hurrying the share a blue team. the work vile him wanted the berryman what you need committee got damn well you did the has gotten to it at them it would get them
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back to hollywood the more you dream no you to name a. matter. robert the ball a moment you know them. not you know you. go it is. bolstered by their newfound credibility the british the finest part about making specific demands after the sykes meeting but events soon overtook them. on the sixth of december one thousand nine hundred sixty british prime minister asquith resigned. in the change of government arthur bound for became foreign secretary under prime minister david lloyd george. lloyd george. as the half awake i walked away from us back recently was iraq. december.
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and i'll. be here with that you know see. one or obama. side but. it's a completely if you. will your own to the people saying well for all woes of rather philosophical bent. and i think he wanted to think in theological terms he wanted to think in historical terms. and it was with that frame of mind i think that he approached the whole question yes it was the fall of my sorry. i would have a back and. minutes of awkward sex because. there was a lot of george. if. i may remember. a tire.
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recall that i scored while before it was over towards the. back. david lloyd george a.j. balfour and all of those who supported the bath addict nation within the british government we can absolutely categorize as being riven with anti semitic thinking and not only that but the thinking behind the balfour declaration that drove them to the balfour declaration was from this anti semitic thought the idea of jewish power of jewish he said this and of a unified jewish attachment design is above all else. whatever its basis the relationship between the british dynasty and the government would continue to grow throughout the one nine hundred seventeen. leading to the
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declaration that would change the face of the middle east and ultimately determine the destinies of two different peoples. hearts. once the strategy of war now the conflict is long over but the adoptions continue
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one o one east investigates why so many sri lankans disappeared without a trace on al-jazeera. the birth of the zionist movement. and the establishment of a jewish homeland in palestine the crucial battle they're listed as was simply getting jews into palestine at any cost hundreds of thousands forced to leave their homes. seventy years on al-jazeera tells the history of what palestinians call the catastrophe. al-jazeera where every year.
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hello adrian for getting here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera the u.s. president says the united states is withdrawing from the twenty fifteen iran nuclear deals donald trump said the agreement is defective to its core adding that he'll impose the highest level of sanctions against iran well iran's president says the u.s. withdrawal from the nuclear deal is unlawful and has accused washington of not respecting its international commitments. they have done nothing except put empty signatures on pieces of paper without doing anything about it the iranian mission on the other hand has agreed to everything and accomplished all its responsibilities we had some duties based on that agreement and we have delivered all of them but today we can see which is the country that doesn't respect international agreements we've done nothing wrong is not acceptable that the u.s. is pulling out other signatories to the deal including the e.u.
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and russia have expressed regret over trump's move america's european allies have pledged to uphold the deal but trump's decision has been supported by israel the united arab emirates and saudi arabia. donald trump's chief diplomat has arrived in north korea to prepare for a summit with kim jong un mike pompei a met kim in the north korean capital last month before he was sworn in as secretary of state both washington and pyongyang have agreed on a date and location for the meeting but no further details of yet been released. voting is underway in malaysia an election by scandal and fierce competition prime minister najib razak cast it cost his palace in the city of pecan achieves coalition is projected to win the most seats but it's expected to be a close race between him and opposition leader mahathir mohamad. about fifteen million registered voters in malaysia with two hundred twenty two seats in parliament up for grabs the u.s. is calling for venezuela's president nicolas maduro to step down to protect what it
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says is the safety and security of latin america as well as economy a struggle for years with hyperinflation that many people find it hard to find food and medicine the tourist government is also accused of using heavy handed tactics to stifle opposition or unrest it's under pressure to suspend its upcoming presidential election on may twentieth which the u.s. ambassador to the u.n. nikki haley calls a sham back with more news in a little over twenty five but it's an al-jazeera but let's get you back to balfour seeds of discord.
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the first world war pitted britain france and russia against germany austria hungary and the ottoman empire the british in the shape of the diplomats or mark sykes were determined to divide autumn in territory in a way that best suited them once the war was over for their own strategic interests . by nine hundred seventeen the war was shifting in the allies favor and in the middle east the british were moving through sinai towards the borders of historic palestine. further north the russian revolution in february one nine hundred seventeen cast doubt on russia's continued involvement in the war. as
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britain and france tried to outmaneuver one another the british zionist movement took on increasing political importance. sikes wants to get back in touch with scientists and think about how to incorporate saw this in british planning for palestine and at this moment we see a hugely important meeting taking place in the home of moses guesstimate of in february seventeenth and this is the point in which sykes mates for the first time haim fight sman and the home circle of. another time in this in which it's discussed what the zionists are looking for and the british interest in zionism so he had to bring the zionists along without divulging what were the secret agreements that britain and france had come to with regard to palestine
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which was that they would jointly administer parts of palestine at this meeting for the british government was sykes and herbert samuel he was there on the other side there were. vitamin and sokolow and there was moses gaster and he brought a couple of his allies because he realised that vitamin was beginning to push him out of the way the other very important figure was james rothschild who attended this meeting. at the meeting it became clear to sykes that vitamin not gaster was the most important zionist this is also the moment where moses cast is dislodged. sikes is part of the french side because i haven't liked best guest it been insistent that this should be
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a jewish state and nothing less coming into being after the war and peace. clearly wants it saw this much more willing to compromise with the interests of the great powers and the vice with the happy to fit that bill. the meetings between the zionists and the government to give momentum to the idea of british support for a jewish homeland in palestine and their potential role in its administration. but the secrets agreements between britain and france which form the basis of the future division of the ottoman empire planned to put palestine under international administration any change would have to be negotiated with. niamh socolow of emerged as the man to talk to the french and.
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should he give. circolo became the acknowledged lead diplomat for zionism and all the accounts say that he had an extremely sort of elegant bearing and wore very fine clothing and that his manners were polished and polite and smooth silky smooth so that he could talk. on an equal basis with the representatives of the german kaiser or the. british government or whatever so the day after the meeting. between sykes and the zionist leaders sykes brought socolow to meet the french diplomat pekoe what sikes wanted was for sokolow to
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a persuade pekoe that zionism must be taken seriously that zionism really was the key to winning the war. and that the zionists would only help the allies win the war if britain was the main power in palestine not france for two hours off because they didn't put it that q. on may or featured mall so called off without false. won't quote. they put out for that i've. received don't you which i don't like but he and also mossad now proved there is not a good office a course a record of that they are home but not on their degree of me tell you we the hell we have them ammend sykes nuff saw in a circle of you know what the brilliant and noble our friends are or your mother
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had this year can a full semi more or less and british cabinet or that often not that the situation of france so we have been were at bill for. bill cabinet the english zero or low and not already different so into lot of city it's hard to know how much influence psychs ultimately had over british policymaking he was given more prominence in british policy making around the middle east during the war years than he ever deserved he was a relatively ill educated inexperienced man whose only connection to the ottoman world had been as a tourist. so for this man to be playing such a role in the holes of power over deciding british policy towards the near east seems to us today to be anomalous indeed ridiculous. regardless of psych's role things continue to progress for the zionists and in june one nine hundred seventeen british foreign secretary arthur balfour asked high in vitamin to present
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his demands as a declaration and promise to try and persuade his government to adopt its. the leading zionist form the political committee and drafted their demands and then submitted them to the british government. this original document was one of the first drafts written at the imperial hotel in london on the seventeenth of july one thousand nine hundred seventeen. it's also introduced a new term and concept the national home of the jewish people so in the initial side of this drafting of the declaration. there were protests most saw its leaders soon a home circle of that there's no mention of the terminology of the jewish state that is said that talking about the national home. this is a trial of what the size trying to achieve and so close response was
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that we mustn't go too far we have to take small steps we have to go with what is acceptable to the british government at this time and then slowly slowly we can evolve course once we have this in hand. and if you look at what i noted that really could not have been could be. certain. that under saddam. or less of a government there was. only one. thing. on the eighteenth of september one thousand nine hundred seventeen there was a meeting of the british war cabinet the foreign secretary arthur balfour was absent. the secretary of state for india edwin montague who was jewish strongly disagreed with the declaration he was opposed to zionism and said
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i deny that palestine is today associated with the jews or properly be regarded as a fit place for them to live montague thought a french to clear ration for porting zionism in june one nine hundred seventeen was anti semitic and negotiated changes to the british version as it went through several drafts. c. is not a battle at them. there are about the world at. war out of the last elite here but all allisat adam assessment of corker c s c. yes good thing feel. that we. are both there on the whole. she would look forward to her both to see if your move should go most who your. daughter is but your. what people gonna.
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do you. people gonna the well resentment of you. a few days later secretary of state for war vi counts milner and the jewish politician philip magnus sent a modified version to the cabinet it incorporated some of montague's changes. including the caviar that quote nothing shall be done that might prejudice the rights and political status enjoyed by such jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship. drafting especially by a board millner that appeared by september was closer to the language that would eventually be adopted in november of one nine hundred seventeen namely speaking not
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about palestine as a whole. but. some sort of presence in palestine on behalf of the jews which is quite different cannot call can mean we were at will for it how man for fair and not. or is there a national. a literary if. there and look at all in national where one may. not have been made. but no not the national home and i would not the national yanni worked on only i would be fearful of the and. the committed zionists wanted to ensure the declaration was clear that the whole of historic palestine would be a national homeland exclusively for the jewish people. the
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latest draft was sent to high invites men who in turn center to the zionist movement in the united states for their feedback. there was some consultation you know during the summer of one thousand nine hundred seventeen with the united states and in the early drafts the. head the imprint of the zionist elements in britain would have referred to pella stone in its entirety as being for some sort of jewish and b. and those elements eventually were modified before the drafting was finalized another key part of the terminology that emerged out of the drafting was in some british redrafting where sort of for the jewish people it was written the
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jewish race eventually this was taken out but i think it's very revealing that british officials wanted to use this kind of terminology because after all this was how they understood the jews of the world as being a racial group when that world it tremendous power and also could be inspired all together as one unit behind the cause of scientism supported by britain and the allies it's striking that the existing arab people in the region were not named at all they're simply called the quote existing non jewish communities in palestine the three point but. so you know we got rid of it but at this point you know ma'am tell us critics are upset. the north reaver ownership meant bar owners are reformed in order if you know good it was the rejoinder. you know barger the opportunity or cowboy opportunity and.
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by october one nine hundred seventeen the final draft of the balfour declaration was ready awaiting only british government final approval. there was a rumor that germany was about to issue a similar declaration supporting the rights of the jews in palestine. when belfer heard he rushed to get his final draft discussed at the cabinets meeting on the thirty first of october one thousand nine hundred nineteen. so when we think about the centenary of the balfour declaration everyone considers second of november nineteenth seventeen as the moment of the day creation itself but it was actually agreed to by the british cabinet on the thirty first of october and this was a hugely significant meeting and in the minutes of that meeting balfour ri it's rates the principle reasons for supporting zionism and highlights it's expected
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propaganda effects amongst jews around the world particularly in the united states and in russia the argument was was put forward most strongly by lord balfour at the meeting of october thirty first and what he argued was that issuing this declaration would be extremely helpful for the british in solidifying the support of the united states and also in countering propaganda from germany the critical thing to remember about british diplomatic pronouncements is that what one individual says does not represent the views of the government as a whole and you will find many different points of view among british officials in the years one thousand seven hundred one thousand eight hundred and right into the early years of the mandate but the british were very clear that they had not promised statehood to the zionist movement they had no interest in doing so the british did not support jewish nationalism they did not support arab nationalism
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they supported british imperialism but this is also the meeting where lord curzon. it was a member of the walk happened it disquiet about the possible effects of supporting zionism on the palestinian arab population and the palestinian opposition is completely disregarded lord curzon wrote a paper to the cabinet asking what was quote to become of the people of this country. there were over half a million syrian arabs a mixed community with arab hebrew canaanite greek egypt shouldn't possibly crusaders blood they in their forefathers of occupied the country for the best part of one thousand five hundred years they own the soil they profess the mohammedan faith they will not be content either to be exposed created for jewish immigrants or to act merely is he was of wood and drawers of water to the latter. but his
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pressie interim marks fell on deaf ears it's like who tells hyde bites at the end of the workout that it's meeting dr rights but it's a boy as though they've witnessed the birth of an agreement to create jewish national home as a baby in the middle east. the final draft of the balfour declaration was sixty seven words long. his majesty's government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non jewish communities in palestine all the rights and political status enjoyed by jews in any other country. i should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to
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the knowledge of the zionist for the ration your sincerely for james balfour. in terms of international law it really has very little standing in international law you know treaties between nations have significance. but the governments affan issue policy statements statements of intention about what they plan to do and those really don't have any standing as as a matter of of law for britain this was. i suppose you would say a statement of its intention is to what it would do if it were to take over palestine which of course it had not yet done as of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen a critical loka has done. i mean stuff
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she. should have been done yeah if. you could be so though because war were your mind them love. show you off your royal. two years after the declaration a church leader in jerusalem wrote to british prime minister lloyd george about jews in palestine trying to control holy sites. lloyd george's office had said that high invites men didn't want to do anything affecting the rights of arabs it said he simply wanted to be involved in a council to help provide refuge to jews fleeing russia and eastern europe. this exchange suggested that britain felt it had not promised a jewish state but simply a place for them to live alongside arabs. when the league of nations set out the british mandate in palestine in one nine hundred twenty three it made britain
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responsible for implementing the balfour declaration. as a result jewish immigration to palestine increased as did arab opposition to it expressed in a series of palestinian protests against britain in the one nine hundred twenty s. they understood the people of palestine to be muslims and christians but did not observe that they would constitute a national community that would seek national independence and after the war very quickly when it becomes clear that palestinian arab nationalists immobilizing against zionism. the british government a quick to see a major problem the balfour declaration had put in train a series of events that began to signal its deep flaws. arab descent built to the three year revolts between one nine hundred thirty six and one nine hundred thirty nine it was a nationalist uprising against the british administration demanding arab independence
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and the end of jewish immigration it was in the pill commission of nine hundred thirty seven that the british first recognized that instead of balancing communities they had set motion a rivalry between incompatible national movements jewish and palestinian arabs. and it was at that point that they tried to solve the problem by dividing palestine into two states arab and jewish through a partition plan and i think there you have the first recognition or admission from british officials of the failure of the balfour declaration. in may nine hundred thirty nine the british government published a policy document on palestine called a white paper it's abandoned the partitioning of palestine into two states and called instead for an independent palestine in which arabs and jews would share government it limited jewish immigration to seventy five thousand for five years and said that the arab majority should determine future immigration levels. it's
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also said that balfour had not meant to create a jewish state at the expense of the arabs any more than the mcmahon who stay in correspondence twenty four years before had promised an arab state to shareef hossain of mecca but the white paper met opposition and was dropped. the british government a quick to see a major problem but there's no way that they can back away from support for zionism because this becomes the basis for their justification for being in the holy land their commitment to supporting the movement in the balfour declaration which becomes in shrines in international law in the terms of the mandate for palestine. so the british stuck with zionism they didn't believe that scientists wanted independent jewish state hood and after the war became very clear that actually the past majority of scientists didn't only want statehood they expected it. i think if
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we're trying to assess whether or not britain's policy towards zionism in the first world war served british interests or not the first thing we have to appreciate is the key reason they supported zionism was based on an incorrect idea they believed that they could mobilize something that they saw as jewish power around the world behind their lead cause so first of all that was entirely wrong and didn't happen because the jewish power is fate is false. in september one thousand nine hundred thirty nine german expansionism led to the second world war over sixty million people died including between five and six million jews the majority in nazi concentration camps. the british mandate ended at midnight on the fourteenth of may one nine hundred forty eight and immediately the formation of the state of israel was announced justified by the
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terms of the balfour declaration issued thirty one years before. while israelis celebrated the birth of their nation seven hundred thousand palestinians were forced into camps and exile. don't allow the government you not to flirt with your need to go and we're going we don't know you know they're coming. for palestinians the balfour declaration represents the moment an imperial power promised their land the way to another people. is that this weather out there which. they hold bell for responsible for their expulsion displacement and occupation.
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with. hello there we've seen some very heavy downpours over parts of the middle east recently look at the satellite picture we can see this whole swelling massive cloud here and it has given to some torrential a heavy downpours localized flooding as well and that system gradually is just edging its way towards the east on wednesday still very disturbed for many of us here will see those thunderstorms work their way through kuwait as well are making their way through parts of iran and then as we head into thursday that gradually spreads its way towards the east but still behind it still plenty of cloud plenty of rain for many of us here the coast those should be fine and dry beirut there twenty six degrees in the sunshine by thursday but for the towards the south and just the trailing leg of that system will affect us across parts of the arabian peninsula so they could just be the old shower head what will really notice in doha there is the change in temperature so thirty nine degrees hot on wednesday but by
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thursday the winds will be feeding down from the northwest so it won't be as hot a maximum will be thirty six degrees but they could be quite a bit of dust around as well for the southern parts of africa largely fine and dry for many of us here we've got a few showers around the coast of madagascar perhaps a few further north a video and into angola but further south largely fine and dry including forest in cape town at seventy. u.s. president donald trump has said he will slap new charis on imports of steel in alameda from five g. will mean the data tax cuts the time starts at the fourteen we bring you the stories that are shaping the economic world we live in counting the cost at this time on al-jazeera.
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this was a horrible one sided deal that should have never ever been made disappointment regrets and praise as u.s. president on the trump announces plans to pull out of the iran nuclear deal. but i'm adrian for again this is al jazeera live from doha also coming up members of iran's parliament an american flag to show their anger even as president rouhani says the test will stay in the deal. malaysia's prime minister seeks a third term despite corruption allegations and elections that pitted against a former mental. and a new call to train midwives in nigeria where every day more than one hundred women die while giving.


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